Gum disease is the inflammation of the soft tissue(gingiva) that covers the tooth. It can progress to affect the bone that surrounds and supports the tooth.
Gum disease can range from gum inflammation to serious disease, that result in damage to soft tissue and bone surrounding the teeth eventually leading to teeth being lost.
Gum disease is caused by bacteria present in the mouth which along with mucus and food particles form a sticky, odourless layer on your teeth called as PLAQUE.
Plaque is removed by regular brushing and flossing. Once it is not removed, plaque gets hardened to form tartar or CALCULUS which can't be removed by brushing. This finally leads to gum or periodontal disease.
GINGIVITIS: Inflammation of the gums surrounding the teeth is called as gingivitis. It is the beginning of gum disease and can be reversed with professional cleaning of the teeth once you visit a dentist.
PERIODONTITIS (pyorrhea): Untreated gingivitis leads to periodontitis which means inflammation around the teeth. It involves the gums, as well as bone surrounding the tooth. Destruction of the surrounding bone around the tooth leads to tooth becoming loose or sometimes has to be removed. In periodontitis gums get pulled away from the teeth and form spaces called as POCKETS which are infected with bacteria.
An ultrasonic cleaner is use for scaling and root planning procedure. The tip of the ultrasonic cleaner vibrates rapidly on the tooth surface leading to removal of tartar. A jet of water is ejected from the scaler which keeps the tooth surface cool and also flush out the deposits. ANTIBIOTICS are given to the patients during the gums treatment to control infection.
FLAP SURGERY: It involves lifting the gums and removing the tartar deposited in the deep pockets around the teeth. Gums are then sutured back in place which on healing fits more tightly around the teeth. It sometimes also involves reducing the size of the pocket making it easier for the patient to keep it clean.
BONE AND SOFT TISSUE GRAFTS: These procedures are required to help regenerate bone or gum tissue which is lost due to advanced gum disease.
Bone grafting involves placing of the natural or synthetic bone in the area of bone loss.
Soft tissue grafts can be used in cases where there is loss of gum tissue. Soft tissue can be taken from another area of your mouth to cover exposed tooth roots.